An International Peer Reviewed Open Access Journal

August – December 2016 Volume 3 Issue 1

1. Role of Micrococcus luteus SNSr7 strain NH54PC02 in Sustainable agriculture by behaving as Biocontrol agent (RESEARCH ARTICLE)

Nisha Sharma and Baljeet Singh Saharan*PDF-Download

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Micrococcus luteus SNSr7 strain NH54PC02 is a phyllospheric bacterium having plant growth promoting activities and isolated from spinach phyllosphere. It is a gram positive micrococcus bacterium that plays an important role in sustainable agriculture by its antimicrobial properties against plant pathogenic microbes. During our research, we observed that Micrococcus luteus SNSr7 had prominent role in HCN and siderophore production. It also showed antifungal activity against Curvularia sp., Alternaria alternata, Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium oxysporum and Cladosporium sp. Maximum antifungal activity was observed at conc. of 2000µL/mL after 14 and 21 days of incubation of SNSr7 culture in nutrient broth at 37 oC. This inhibition was either due to secondary metabolites (that are toxic for pathogens) or through certain enzymatic activity as it showed cellulase, protease and chitinase enzyme activities. Maximum percentage inhibition was estimated against Alternaria alternata (76.74%) and Curvularia sp. (78%). With the help of all these important properties it can be concluded that Micrococcus luteus SNSr7 strain NH54PC02 might be act as biocontrol agent and thus help in sustainable agriculture.

Key words:  Antifungal, HCN, Phyllosphere, Seed germination, Siderophore.
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2. Exploring the arsenic reducing bacteria from soil and waste water in Faisalabad (RESEARCH ARTICLE)

Muhammad Sajid*, Sajjad ur Rahman, Muhammad Shahid, Muhammad Saleem, Faisal Rasheed Anjum, MuhaPDF-Downloadmmad Amin

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Arsenic is a toxic metal and is extensively dissipated in the environment due to natural geochemical processes and anthropogenic activities. The current aim of the study was to evaluate the arsenic reducing bacteria from soil and waste water. A 15 samples each from soil (poultry soil) and waste water (domestic waste and industrial effluents) were collected and grown on LB agar containing 10 µg of sodium metaarsenite. Distinct colonies were streaked on LB media containing 10 µg of sodium metaarsenite in triplicates. Identification of isolates on the basis of cultural, morphological and biochemical characteristics were performed. Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter aerogenes, Citrobacter freundaii and Providencia alcalifaciens were recognized on the basis of RapID 20 E kit and biochemical tests. The silver nitrate reduction test was used for confirmation of arsenic reducing bacteria indicated presence of bright yellow precipitate. Optimum growth conditions like temperature and pH were determined by Breed’s smear method at regular intervals of time and were found that the optimum growth for Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter aerogenes and Klebsiella oxytoca were at 37oC at 24 hours whereas  optimal temperature for Providencia alcalifaciens and Citrobacter freundaii was found to be 30oC at 24 hours. The optimal pH for Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter aerogenes and Bacillus subtilis was found to be 7.00 at 24 hours whereas Providencia alcalifaciens and Citrobacter freundaii showed optimal growth at 5.00 pH at 24 hours. Antibiotic sensitivity of the isolates was performed on Muller Hinton agar by Kirby Bueyer method to determine the zone of inhibition. Klebsiella oxytoca and Bacillus subtilis were resistant to moxifloxacin and susceptible to ciprofloxacin, oxytetracycline and oxacillin while Citrobacter freundaii, Eneterobacter aerogenes and Providencia alcalifaciens were sensitive to ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin, oxytetracycline and oxacillin.The bacterial isolates can be exploited for the bioremediation of arsenic containing waste and for the detection of arsenic contents in chicken meats.

Key words:  Arsenic reducing bacteria, bioremediation, antibiotics, Kirby Bueyer method.
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3. Molecular detection of Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica and Salmonellae in fresh and frozen Saurus fish in Damietta, Egypt (RESEARCH ARTICLE)PDF-Download

Mohammed Reda EL- Bediwi *

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The objectives of this study were to determine the incidence of non STEC, STEC, Y. enterocolitica and Salmonellae isolated from frozen and fresh Saurus fish samples obtained from fish markets in Damietta governorate. A total of 200 fish samples comprising 100 samples from each frozen and fresh Saurus were collected from different public fish markets at Damietta Governorate. STEC, non STEC isolation were performed according to FDA (2011). While, and Y. enterocolitica was performed according to FDA (2001).While, isolation of Salmonellae was performed according to (ISO 6579, 2002). Positive samples of standard microbiological techniques were confirmed with polymerase chain reaction (PCR)by detecting a fragment of Prs genes. Results revealed that, non STEC was isolated from fresh and frozen Saurus fish as 10 (10%) and 2 (2%), respectively. Meanwhile, STEC and Y. enterocoliticawere only isolated from fresh samples as 2(2%) and 11(11%), respectively. However, Salmonellae could not be detected in all fish samples. According to E.S.S (2005) frozen and chilled fish samples must be free from E. coli, Y. enterocolitica and Salmonellae.  The study showed that E. coli and Y. enterocolitica were common contaminant of fish obtained from Damietta fish markets, and this may pose serious public health implications.

Key words:  non STEC, STEC, Y. enterocolitica, Salmonellae, Saurus fish, PCR, Egypt.
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4. Medicinal plants as an alternative drug against Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (REVIEW ARTICLE)PDF-Download

Emad Mohamed Abdallah *

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The unsolved problem of the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a worrisome health issue. MRSA strains developed resistance to almost all current antibiotics. Medicinal plants have been used as the main source of remedies and pharmaceutical drugs from the past civilizations. Numerous plants exhibited effective antibacterial activity against MRSA strains and competitor to current antibiotics, some of them have a potential to restore the effectiveness of antibiotics on MRSA. This mini-review tries to highlight some promising plants that could serve as a source for new antibacterial principles against MRSA.

Key words:  Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA, medicinal plants, synergy, antibacterial activity.
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